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Title: Diversidade críptica em Pristimantis fenestratus (Anura: Craugastoridae) na Amazônia Oriental brasileira
Authors: Oliveira, Elciomar Araújo de
metadata.dc.contributor.advisor: Hrbek, Tomas Hernández Huz, Emil José
Gordo, Marcelo
Keywords: Sapos
Issue Date: 13-Aug-2015
Publisher: Instituto Nacional de Pesquisa da Amazônia - INPA
metadata.dc.publisher.program: Genética, Conservação e Biologia Evolutiva - GCBEv
metadata.dc.description.resumo: In terms of diversity of amphibians, the Neotropics is unmatched, occurring approximately 2,065 species, more than any other region on the planet. Only for South America are recognized 95% of this diversity (1,959). The Brazil is the richest amphibians country in diversity in the planet with 946 species described and frogs the most diverse group with 350 species to Amazon. Several biogeographic theories try to explain this great diversity, using of molecular markers, morphology, species diversity, ethology, modeling, among others. The genus Pristimantis contains more than 470 species, divided into 11 groups. The species in this study, Pristimantis fenestratus belongs to Pristimantis conspicillatus group with over 33 species. This study aimed to investigate the existence of cryptic species within P. fenestratus in eastern Amazonia and observe the effect of rivers Trombetas, Jatapu, Tapajós and Xingu in the distribution of genetic diversity within P. fenestratus. Were sequenced 114 individuals of P. fenestratus for the mitochondrial 16S rDNA, 62 sequences gene Cytochrome Oxidase subunit I (COI) of mtDNA and 84 sequences from nuclear gene tyrosinase. One hundred and thirty-two males were measured for Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and discriminant function analysis (DFA). The population structure analysis for all concatenated genes, revealed strong structure in the main interfluve formed by the major tributaries of the Amazon River. The Maximum Likelihood trees, to the concatenated mitochondrial genes and the nuclear gene, showed a consistent topology with the groups found by BAPS, separating the groups in clades with high bootstrap support. The genetic distance p unadjusted pairwise groups ranged between 2-11% for the 16S gene, whereas in the groups ranged from 1-2%. The ACP showed no separation in morphometric space between locations. AFD presented only 52% accurate to classify individuals according to their genetic grouping of BAPS, features that support a complex of species within P. fenestratus. The analysis of the divergence time showed a basal division between two groups for both the 16S gene (rDNA) and tyrosinase (nDNA), during the middle Miocene. Based on these results, we suggest a new species for the genus Pristimantis, supported by molecular evidence (16S) and morphological characters that distinguishes it from P. fenestratus the type locality and other species of P. conspicillatus group. These results show that Pristimantis fenestratus has a strong structuring between the Amazon interfluvia with high genetic divergence between them. His conservative morphology does not enable us to find morphometric differences between the locations analyzed, although results (morphological and molecular) provides evidence that the species may be masking a complex of species and taxonomic revision is needed to resolve this taxonomic problem.
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