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Título: Filogeografia de uma nova espécie de rato-de-espinho (Proechimys sp., Echimyidae) no contexto das alterações ambientais do Quaternário
Autor: Parra, Danilo Bruxellas
Orientador: Leite, Rafael N.
Palavras-chave: Rato-de-espinho
Proechimys sp
Alterações paleo- hidrológicas
Data do documento: 9-Set-2017
Editor: Instituto Nacional de Pesquisa da Amazônia - INPA
Programa: Genética, Conservação e Biologia Evolutiva - GCBEv
Resumo: The landscape history exerts great influence on the processes that generate and sustain biodiversity. Proechimys sp. is a new species of sylvatic rodent not described yet, which belongs to the longicaudatus group (family Echimyidae). Previous studies point to a possible influence of the Aripuanã river, a tributary of the Madeira river, in the differentiation of Proechimys sp. In addition, paleochannel systems in the Madeira region indicate paleo- hydrological changes of the Aripuanã and Ji-Paraná rivers. Here we describe the patterns of genetic diversity in Proechimys sp., investigate the effect of landscape changes, such as the formation of paleochannels, and propose hypotheses for the diversification of this new species of spiny rat from southern Amazonia. We used nuclear and mitochondrial markers to reconstruct gene trees and species trees, haplotype networks, estimate the timing of divergence and historical demography for each of the lineages recovered in the analyzes. Our results indicated the presence of five lineages that can be considered as distinct populations. Evidence from other studies indicates that mechanisms of rearrangement of chromosomal patterns should be associated with lineage diversification. We also believe that ecological factors are related to the diversity pattern found in Proechimys sp. Although the effect of large rivers is largely implicated in the high diversity of Amazonia, the effect of smaller rivers in the Madeira-Tapajós interfluve seems to play an important role in the biogeographic patterns of this region. Our results demonstrate such effect in the populations of Proechimys sp. And corroborate the hypothesis that environments with great habitat heterogeneity and unstable climatic and geological conditions promote high biodiversity.
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