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Title: Composição, abundância, diversidade e mapeamento cromossômico de DNA repetitivo em ciclídeos neotropicais utilizando dados de sequenciamento de nova geração
Authors: Tavares, Edika Sabrina Girão Mitozo
metadata.dc.contributor.advisor: Schneider, Carlos Henrique Martins, Cesar
Keywords: Mapeamento cromossômico
Ciclídeos Neotropicais
Peixes – água doce
Issue Date: 29-Apr-2016
Publisher: Instituto Nacional de Pesquisa da Amazônia - INPA
metadata.dc.publisher.program: Genética, Conservação e Biologia Evolutiva - GCBEv
metadata.dc.description.resumo: Cichlids have different morphological, ecological and behavioral adaptations, promoting their adaptation in different environments throughout evolution. This diversity is reflected in the composition of cytogenomics group, which shows disparity in karyotype formula and diploid number of phylogenetically related species. The differences in composition and structure variations of these species are directly related to the repetitive fraction of the genome, since they correspond to most of the genome, and promotes chromosomal rearrangement events that can be observed by fluorescent in situ hybridization technique. Chromosome physical mapping of neotropical amazonian cichlid limited to specific elements that are the main targets of cytogenetic studies, such as non-LTR retrotransposons Rex and ribosomal DNA family. However, other participants in the repetitive portion of the genome have not yet been mapped until this present study. In addition, studies in African cichlids, brother phylogenetic group of neotropical, indicate that repetitive genomic composition of these species is much broader. Thanks to the recent availability of genomic sequencing of males and females of Amazonian species Cichla vazzoleri, Astronotus ocellatus, Pterophyllum scalare and Symphysodon discus, this study has identified, from a small fraction of the total genome of these species, other classes of repetitive elements in order to map them on chromosomes. The repetitive elements were identified as simple repeat and satellites DNA, and different classes of non-LTR retrotransposons LINE-like, LTR retrotransposons ERV-like and transposons Tc1-like. Moreover, it was possible to identify the proportion of each element in genomic sample used and relate the abundance of the number of copies of each element with the phylogeny of the host group, providing preliminary data on the participation of transposable throughout evolution. From this initial approach, the transposable elements more abundant were selected for use as probes in chromosomal physical mapping: retrotransposons non-LTR lines L2, RTE and Dong.R4 and transposons Tc1. The markings were conspicuous and widespread and not restricted to regions of heterochromatin. Some peculiarities were observed, such as retroelement L2 in Astronotus ocellatus, whose markings were mostly conspicuous in the centromeric and terminal regions, with the exception of chromosome pair 10 which showed strong marks scattered throughout the chromosome segment. Further investigation was conducted to identify possible variations of elements used as probes, the technique of in vivo cloning. In general, the sequences are relatively conserved, showing high degree of identity each other. Genomic data of transposable elements combined with its chromosomal mapping and their comparative nucleotide sequences provide preliminary data on the participation in the composition, organization and cytogenomics evolution of neotropical Amazonian cichlids.
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