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Título: Floodplain and upland populations of Amazonian Himatanthus sucuuba: Effects of flooding on germination, seedling growth and mortality
Autor(es): Cristiane S Ferreira
Maria Teresa Fernandez Piedade
W J Junk
P Parolin
ISSN: 0098-8472
Revista: Environmental and Experimental Botany
Volume: 60
Resumo: Himatanthus sucuuba is a tree species that occurs in Central Amazonian white water floodplains and in non-flooded uplands. The objective of this paper was to verify whether flooding causes differences in germination percentages, seedling mortality as well as alterations of leaf number and biomass increments, related to the habitat of origin of the seeds (varzea floodplain versus terra firme upland, in the following V and TF, respectively). To test this effect, seeds from populations of both habitats were collected, and germination percentages were calculated under different experimental conditions. One hundred seeds collected in three sites of the floodplain and one hundred seeds from three sites of the upland were placed in trays for germination in a greenhouse in the Amazon Research Institute (INPA) in Manaus, Brazil. Seedlings with a height of 7 cm were then subjected to a period of 120 days of flooding in tanks with three treatments: control, waterlogging (root system and the base of the stem), and complete submersion. Ground water from the INPA was used in the tanks and was changed at weekly intervals. Germination percentages were high in most treatments. Seedling mortality was significantly higher in seedlings originating from upland, reaching 100% in submerged seedlings. On the other hand, varzea-originated seedlings showed no mortality under waterlogging or submergence.Height growth of waterlogged seedlings from floodplains exceeded that of the control. Submerged seedlings did not grow, independently of the origin, and those originating from uplands died after about 100 days. Number of leaves and leaf area were significantly lower under partial submersion than in the control, independently of the origin of the seeds. Under total submersion abscission of all leaves was verified 30 days after inundation for seedlings of both origins. In the V population, all seedlings survived the waterlogged period, whereas in the TF population, 30% of the seedlings died when subjected to waterlogging. With complete submergence, in the V population 30% of the seedlings had died after 120 days, in the TF population after 90 days mortality was 100%. The results show that germination, seedling growth and seedling survival in H. sucuuba differ among populations of floodplain and upland sites: V plants performed better than TF plants under waterlogging and under submersion. The results strongly indicate that ecotypic differentiation exists between these two populations of H. sucuuba individuals in the two habitat types, which may be enforced by a strong selective pressure due to the regular occurring flood pulse. (C) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
ISSN: 0098-8472
Aparece nas coleções:Coordenação de Dinâmica Ambiental (CDAM)

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