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Título: Diet Of The Turtle Phrynops Rufipes In Central Amazonia.
Autor(es): A. C. Lima
William Ernest Magnusson
V. L. Costa
Assunto: dieta
ISSN: 0045-8511
Revista: Copeia
Volume: 1997
Resumo: Phrynops rufiPesis one of the least known Nea-tropical chelonians (Pritchard, 1984). Palm fruits constitute an important part of its diet in Colombia (Medem, 1973; Lamar and Medem, 1982). No information is available on the diet of the species in the eastern part of its range. We investigated the diet of P. rufiPes in the Reserva Florestal Adolpho Ducke (03°08'S, 60004'W), central Amazônia, Brazil. This is near the eastern limit of its known range although studies of small forest streams have recently shown it to occur also in the state of Pará (INPA, Specimen number 1229). Initially, we tried to pump the stomach contents from indi-viduais (Legler, 1977). However, we were unable to dislodge seeds that could be felt through the body wall, and one animal died as a result of puncturing the stomach wall (Museum of Zo-ology, University of São Paulo: Number 3059). Therefore, we used fecal analysis to evaluate the diet. Materiais and methods.-Animals were caught by hand or in funnel traps baited with raw chicken. Ali captures were made in a small stream, Igar-apé Acará, and one of its unhamed tributaries. The study area has been described in detail by Magnusson and Lima (1991). Straight-line car-apace length was measured with a tape accurate to 0.1 cm. Animais were marked with uni que combinations of holes drilled in the marginal scutes. Turtles were retained for fecal analysis in the years 1992 (10), 1993 (15), and 1994 (21). Most of the 46 (61 including recaptures) were caught in the months ofMay (18),]uly (7), and September (6). None was caught in February. Animais were maintained in captivity for two to four days in plastic basins and then released at the site of capture. Feces were collected daily. Usually the animais defecated only once, al-though the timing varied from the first to the fourth day in captivity. Of 61 attempts to obtain feces, only 39 were successful. Items in the feces were identified to species (palm fruits) , family (other fruits) , or order (an-imals). The number present was the minimum number of prey that could have contributed to the collection of parts encountered. However, for most analyses, dietary items were grouped as palm fruits, other fruits, aquatic inverte-brates, terrestrial invertebrates, or vertebrates. Similarities between the diets of individual animais (only data from the first capture) were estimated by the Bray-Curtis (Czekanowski) in-dex. This index was chosen because it is not affected by joint absences (Belbin, 1992) and is less affected by aliasing than most other multi-variate distance measures (Mac Nally, 1994). Data on the frequency of occurrence of dietary items were range-standardized within individu-ais to give equal weights to different-sized indi-viduals, which would otherwise differ in diet simply because larger animais produce more fe-ces. The diet categories are not independent of each other because time spent eating one item generally precludes the eating of another. Also, the general increase in quantity with size is ex-pected for the obvious reason that larger ani-mais have larger stomachs. To obtain a single index of diet, we used semistrong hybrid mul-tidimensional scaling (SSH MDS) to create a single ordination representing covariation in the five major diet categories. Ali multivariate analyses were done using the PATN program (Belbin, 1992). The distribution of captures was not ideal for examining seasonal variation in. diets, but, as a first approximation, we looked for seasonal trends in diet by calculating the mean value for the five major categories and the compound in-dex for each month. To test for serial correla-tions in the values for these indices, we used the mean square successive difference test (Zar, 1974:305).
ISSN: 0045-8511
Local de publicação: Estados Unidos
Aparece nas coleções:Coordenação de Biodiversidade (CBIO)

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