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Título: In vitro and in vivo anti-malarial activity of plants from the Brazilian Amazon
Autor(es): Renata Braga Souza Lima
Rodrigo César das Neves Amorim
Francisco Celio Maia Chaves
Julia Penna Coutinho
Wanderli Pedro Tadei
Antoniana Ursine Krettli
Adrian Martin Pohlit
Luiz Francisco Rocha e Silva
Marcia Rúbia Silva Melo
Jaqueline da Costa Siqueira
Neila Soares Picanço
Emerson Silva Lima
Marne Carvalho de Vasconcellos
Ana Paula de Araújo Boleti
Jakeline Mylelis Pinheiro dos Santos
Assunto: Plasmodium falciparum
Plasmodium berghei
ISSN: 1475-2875
Revista: Malaria Journal
Volume: 14
Resumo: Background: The anti-malarials quinine and artemisinin were isolated from traditionally used plants (Cinchona spp. and Artemisia annua, respectively). The synthetic quinoline anti-malarials (e.g. chloroquine) and semi-synthetic artemisinin derivatives (e.g. artesunate) were developed based on these natural products. Malaria is endemic to the Amazon region where Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax drug-resistance is of concern. There is an urgent need for new anti-malarials. Traditionally used Amazonian plants may provide new treatments for drug-resistant P. vivax and P. falciparum. Herein, the in vitro and in vivo antiplasmodial activity and cytotoxicity of medicinal plant extracts were investigated. Methods: Sixty-nine extracts from 11 plant species were prepared and screened for in vitro activity against P. falciparum K1 strain and for cytotoxicity against human fibroblasts and two melanoma cell lines. Median inhibitory concentrations (IC50) were established against chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum W2 clone using monoclonal anti-HRPII (histidine-rich protein II) antibodies in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Extracts were evaluated for toxicity against murine macrophages (IC50) and selectivity indices (SI) were determined. Three extracts were also evaluated orally in Plasmodium berghei-infected mice. Results: High in vitro antiplasmodial activity (IC50 = 6.4–9.9 µg/mL) was observed for Andropogon leucostachyus aerial part methanol extracts, Croton cajucara red variety leaf chloroform extracts, Miconia nervosa leaf methanol extracts, and Xylopia amazonica leaf chloroform and branch ethanol extracts. Paullinia cupana branch chloroform extracts and Croton cajucara red variety leaf ethanol extracts were toxic to fibroblasts and or melanoma cells. Xylopia amazonica branch ethanol extracts and Zanthoxylum djalma-batistae branch chloroform extracts were toxic to macrophages (IC50 = 6.9 and 24.7 µg/mL, respectively). Andropogon leucostachyus extracts were the most selective (SI >28.2) and the most active in vivo (at doses of 250 mg/kg, 71 % suppression of P. berghei parasitaemia versus untreated controls). Conclusions: Ethnobotanical or ethnopharmacological reports describe the anti-malarial use of these plants or the antiplasmodial activity of congeneric species. No antiplasmodial activity has been demonstrated previously for the extracts of these plants. Seven plants exhibit in vivo and or in vitro anti-malarial potential. Future work should aim to discover the anti-malarial substances present.
ISSN: 1475-2875
Aparece nas coleções:Coordenação de Tecnologia e Inovação (COTI)

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