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Title: The integration of alien plants in mutualistic plant-hummingbird networks across the Americas: The importance of species traits and insularity
Authors: Maruyama, Pietro Kiyoshi
Vizentin-Bugoni, Jeferson
Sonne, Jesper
Martín González, Ana M.
Schleuning, Matthias
Araujo, Andréa Cardoso de
Baquero, Andrea C.
Cardona, Juliana
Cardona, Paola
Kohler, Glauco
Lara, Carlos
Malucelli, Tiago Simões
Marín, Oscar Humberto
Ollerton, Jeff
Rui, Ana Maria
Timmermann, Allan
Varassin, Isabela Galarda
Zanata, Thais Bastos
Rahbek, Carsten
Sazima, Marlies And I.
Dalsgaard, Bo
Keywords: Abundance
Biological Invasion
Floral Trait
Integrated Approach
Introduced Species
Network Analysis
Plant-pollinator Interaction
Mainland [shetland]
United Kingdom
United States
Issue Date: 2016
metadata.dc.publisher.journal: Diversity and Distributions
metadata.dc.relation.ispartof: Volume 22, Número 6, Pags. 672-681
Abstract: Aim: To investigate the role of alien plants in mutualistic plant-hummingbird networks, assessing the importance of species traits, floral abundance and insularity on alien plant integration. Location: Mainland and insular Americas. Methods: We used species-level network indices to assess the role of alien plants in 21 quantitative plant-hummingbird networks where alien plants occur. We then evaluated whether plant traits, including previous adaptations to bird pollination, and insularity predict these network roles. Additionally, for a subset of networks for which floral abundance data were available, we tested whether this relates to network roles. Finally, we tested the association between hummingbird traits and the probability of interaction with alien plants across the networks. Results: Within the 21 networks, we identified 32 alien plant species and 352 native plant species. On average, alien plant species attracted more hummingbird species (i.e. aliens had a higher degree) and had a higher proportion of interactions across their hummingbird visitors than native plants (i.e. aliens had a higher species strength). At the same time, an average alien plant was visited more exclusively by certain hummingbird species (i.e. had a higher level of complementary specialization). Large alien plants and those occurring on islands had more evenly distributed interactions, thereby acting as connectors. Other evaluated plant traits and floral abundance were unimportant predictors of network roles. Short-billed hummingbirds had higher probability of including alien plants in their interactions than long-billed species. Main conclusions: Once incorporated into plant-hummingbird networks, alien plants appear strongly integrated and, thus, may have a large influence on network dynamics. Plant traits and floral abundance were generally poor predictors of how well alien species are integrated. Short-billed hummingbirds, often characterized as functionally generalized pollinators, facilitate the integration of alien plants. Our results show that plant-hummingbird networks are open for invasion. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
metadata.dc.identifier.doi: 10.1111/ddi.12434
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