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Title: Experimental Plasmodium vivax infection of key Anopheles species from the Brazilian Amazon
Authors: Ríos-Velásquez, Cláudia María
Martins-Campos, Keillen M.
Simões, Rejane C.
Izzo, Thiago Junqueira
dos Santos, Emerson Soares
Pessoa, Felipe Arley Costa
Lima, José Bento Pereira
Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo
Secundino, Nagilá Francinete Costa
Lacerda, Marcus V. G.
Tadei, Wanderli Pedro
Pimenta, Paulo Filemon Paolucci
Keywords: Anopheles
Anopheles Albitarsis
Anopheles Darlingi
Anopheles Nuneztovari
Anopheles Triannulatus
Blood Smear
Controlled Study
Developmental Stage
Disease Severity
Infection Rate
Infection Sensitivity
Membrane Feeding Device
Normal Human
Parasite Vector
Plasmodium Vivax Malaria
Animals Experimentation
Parasite Load
Plasmodium Vivax
Issue Date: 2013
metadata.dc.publisher.journal: Malaria Journal
metadata.dc.relation.ispartof: Volume 12, Número 1
Abstract: Background: Anopheles darlingi is the major malaria vector in countries located in the Amazon region. Anopheles aquasalis and Anopheles albitarsis s.l. are also proven vectors in this region. Anopheles nuneztovari s.l. and Anopheles triannulatus s.l. were found infected with Plasmodium vivax; however, their status as vectors is not yet well defined. Knowledge of susceptibility of Amazon anopheline populations to Plasmodium infection is necessary to better understand their vector capacity. Laboratory colonization of An. darlingi, the main Amazon vector, has proven to be difficult and presently An. aquasalis is the only available autonomous colony. Methods. Larvae of An. darlingi, An. albitarsis s.l., An. nuneztovari s.l. and An. triannulatus s.l. were collected in the field and reared until adult stage. Adults of An. aquasalis were obtained from a well-established colony. Mosquitoes were blood-fed using a membrane-feeding device containing infected blood from malarial patients.The infection of the distinct Anopheles species was evaluated by the impact variance of the following parameters: (a) parasitaemia density; (b) blood serum inactivation of the infective bloodmeal; (c) influence of gametocyte number on infection rates and number of oocysts. The goal of this work was to compare the susceptibility to P. vivax of four field-collected Anopheles species with colonized An. aquasalis. Results: All Anopheles species tested were susceptible to P. vivax infection, nevertheless the proportion of infected mosquitoes and the infection intensity measured by oocyst number varied significantly among species. Inactivation of the blood serum prior to mosquito feeding increased infection rates in An. darlingi and An. triannulatus s.l., but was diminished in An. albitarsis s.l. and An. aquasalis. There was a positive correlation between gametocyte density and the infection rate in all tests (Z = -8.37; p < 0.001) but varied among the mosquito species. Anopheles albitarsis s.l., An. aquasalis and An. nuneztovari s.l. had higher infection rates than An. darlingi. Conclusion: All field-collected Anopheles species, as well as colonized An. aquasalis are susceptible to experimental P. vivax infections by membrane feeding assays. Anopheles darlingi, An. albitarsis s.l. and An. aquasalis are very susceptible to P. vivax infection. However, colonized An. aquasalis mosquitoes showed the higher infection intensity represented by infection rate and oocyst numbers. This study is the first to characterize experimental development of Plasmodium infections in Amazon Anopheles vectors and also to endorse that P. vivax infection of colonized An. aquasalis is a feasible laboratory model. © 2013 Rios-Velásquez et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
metadata.dc.identifier.doi: 10.1186/1475-2875-12-460
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