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|Title:||Patterns and relative rates of nucleotide and insertion/deletion evolution at six chloroplast intergenic regions in new world species of the Lecythidaceae|
|Authors:||Hamilton, Matthew B.|
Braverman, John M.
Soria-Hernanz, David F.
|metadata.dc.publisher.journal:||Molecular Biology and Evolution|
|metadata.dc.relation.ispartof:||Volume 20, Número 10, Pags. 1710-1721|
|Abstract:||Insertions and deletions (indels) in chloroplast noncoding regions are common genetic markers to estimate population structure and gene flow, although relatively little is known about indel evolution among recently diverged lineages such as within plant families. Because indel events tend to occur nonrandomly along DNA sequences, recurrent mutations may generate homoplasy for indel haplotypes. This is a potential problem for population studies, because indel haplotypes may be shared among populations after recurrent mutation as well as gene flow. Furthermore, indel haplotypes may differ in fitness and therefore be subject to natural selection detectable as rate heterogeneity among lineages. Such selection could contribute to the spatial patterning of cpDNA haplotypes, greatly complicating the interpretation of cpDNA population structure. This study examined both nucleotide and indel cpDNA variation and divergence at six noncoding regions (psbB-psbH, atpB-rbcL, trnL-trnH, rpl20-5′ rps12, trnS-trnG, and trnH-psbA) in 16 individuals from eight species in the Lecythidaceae and a Sapotaceae outgroup. We described patterns of cpDNA changes, assessed the level of indel homoplasy, and tested for rate heterogeneity among lineages and regions. Although regression analysis of branch lengths suggested some degree of indel homoplasy among the most divergent lineages, there was little evidence for indel homoplasy within the Lecythidaceae. Likelihood ratio tests applied to the entire phylogenetic tree revealed a consistent pattern rejecting a molecular clock. Tajima's 1D and 2D tests revealed two taxa with consistent rate heterogeneity, one showing relatively more and one relatively fewer changes than other taxa. In general, nucleotide changes showed more evidence of rate heterogeneity than did indel changes. The rate of evolution was highly variable among the six cpDNA regions examined, with the trnS-trnG and trnH-psbA regions showing as much as 10% and 15% divergence within the Lecythidaceae. Deviations from rate homogeneity in the two taxa were constant across cpDNA regions, consistent with lineage-specific rates of evolution rather than cpDNA region-specific natural selection. There is no evidence that indels are more likely than nucleotide changes to experience homoplasy within the Lecythidaceae. These results support a neutral interpretation of cpDNA indel and nucleotide variation in population studies within species such as Corythophora alta. © Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution 2003; all rights reserved.|
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