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Title: The influence of different El Niño types on the South American rainfall
Authors: Andreoli, Rita Valéria
Oliveira, Suzana Soares de
Kayano, Mary Toshie
Viegas, Juarez
Souza, Rodrigo Augusto Ferreira de
Cândido, Luiz Antônio
Keywords: Atmospheric Movements
Atmospheric Pressure
Atmospheric Temperature
Climate Change
Mechanical Waves
Precipitation (chemical)
Surface Waters
Atmospheric Circulation Patterns
Equatorial Pacific
Longitudinal Extension
Precipitation Anomalies
Sea Surface Temperature Anomalies
South America
Southeastern South America
Southern Oscillation
Atmospheric Circulation
El Nino
Precipitation (climatology)
Rossby Wave
Sea Surface Temperature
Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean (central)
Pacific Ocean (east)
Pacific Ocean (equatorial)
Pacific Ocean (tropical)
South America
Issue Date: 2017
metadata.dc.publisher.journal: International Journal of Climatology
metadata.dc.relation.ispartof: Volume 37, Número 3, Pags. 1374-1390
Abstract: The impacts of El Niño (EN) on the rainfall over South America are investigated considering three EN types differing in the locations of the maximum sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the equatorial Pacific: the Central-Pacific (CP), Eastern-Pacific (EP) and the Mixed (MIX) types. The largest positive (SST) anomalies for the EP and CP types occur, respectively, in the eastern and central sectors of the tropical Pacific during all seasons. The SST anomaly pattern for the MIX-EN resembles that of the EP–EN during its onset stage, and of the CP–EN during its mature and demise stages. The different SST anomaly patterns affect the large-scale (Walker circulation and the tropospheric Rossby-wave trains) and local (South American low-level jet – SALLJ) atmospheric circulation patterns in different ways and lead to distinct precipitation anomaly patterns over South America. Variations in the position and longitudinal extension of the downward motions of the EN-related eastward-displaced Walker circulation explain the differences in the dryness over equatorial South America. For the CP–EN, a double Walker cell defines a more zonal configuration of the equatorial dryness over South America during the first three analysed seasons. This feature is not noted for the other two EN types. The Rossby-wave train pattern path depends on the EN types and seasons. In consequence, the associated local atmospheric circulation patterns depend also on the season and EN types. In all seasons, an intense SALLJ for the EP EN contrasts with weak or inexistence SALLJ for the other two EN types. Thus, a wetter condition over southeastern South America, southern and eastern Brazil occurs for the EP EN in relation to the other EN types. The results shown here, in particular considering the MIX EN type, have not been discussed before and might be useful mainly for climate monitoring purposes. © 2016 Royal Meteorological Society
metadata.dc.identifier.doi: 10.1002/joc.4783
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