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Title: Experimental study on the survival of the water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms—Pontederiaceae) under different oil doses and times of exposure
Authors: Lopes, Aline
Piedade, Maria Teresa Fernandez
Keywords: Dose-response Relationship
Experimental Study
Food Chain
Nutrient Cycling
Oil Pollution
Petroleum Hydrocarbon
Physicochemical Property
Pollution Exposure
Risk Factor
Vegetation Cover
Water Quality
Amazon River
Eichhornia Crassipes
Adverse Effects
Drug Effects
Growth, Development And Aging
Oil Spills
Plant Leaf
Toxicity Testing
Petroleum Pollution
Plant Leaves
Random Allocation
Toxicity Tests
Issue Date: 2014
metadata.dc.publisher.journal: Environmental Science and Pollution Research
metadata.dc.relation.ispartof: Volume 21, Número 23, Pags. 13503-13511
Abstract: In the last decades, petroleum activities have increased in the Brazilian Amazon where there is oil exploration on the Urucu River, a tributary of the Amazon River, about 600 km from the city of Manaus. Particularly, transportation via the Amazon River to reach the oil refinery in Manaus may compromise the integrity of the large floodplains that flank hundreds of kilometers of this major river. In the Amazon floodplains, plant growth and nutrient cycling are related to the flood pulse. When oil spills occur, floating oil on the water surface is dispersed through wind and wave action in the littoral region, thus affecting the vegetation of terrestrial and aquatic environments. If pollutants enter the system, they are absorbed by plants and distributed in the food chain via plant consumption, mortality, and decomposition. The effect of oil on the growth and survival of vegetation in these environments is virtually unknown. The water hyacinth [Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms] has a pantropical distribution but is native to the Amazon, often growing in high-density populations in the floodplains where it plays an important role as shelter and food source for aquatic and terrestrial biota. The species is well known for its high capacity to absorb and tolerate high levels of heavy metal ions. To study the survival and response of water hyacinth under six different oil doses, ranging from 0 to 150 ml l−1, and five exposure times (1, 5, 10, 15, and 20 days), young individuals distributed in a completely randomized design experiment composed of vessels with a single individual each were followed over a 50-day period (30-day acclimatization, 20 days under oil treatments). Growth parameters, biomass, visual changes in the plants, and pH were recorded at 1, 5, 10, 15, and 20 days. Increasing the time of oil exposure caused a decrease in biomass, ratio of live/dead biomass and length of leaves, and an increase in the number of dead leaves. Dose of oil and time of exposure are the most important factors controlling the effects of petroleum hydrocarbons on E. crassipes. Although the species is able to survive exposure to a moderate dose of oil, below 75 ml l−1 for only 5 days, severe alterations in plant growth and high mortality were observed. Therefore, we conclude that Urucu oil heavily affects E. crassipes despite its known resistance to many pollutants. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
metadata.dc.identifier.doi: 10.1007/s11356-014-3307-8
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