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Title: The Andean Hapalopsittaca parrots (Psittacidae, Aves): An example of montane-tropical lowland vicariance
Authors: Quintero, Esther
Ribas, Camila Cherem
Cracraft, Joel L.
Keywords: Aves
Issue Date: 2013
metadata.dc.publisher.journal: Zoologica Scripta
metadata.dc.relation.ispartof: Volume 42, Número 1, Pags. 28-43
Abstract: We describe a phylogenetic and biogeographical pattern connecting high montane biotas to those of the lowlands, as exemplified by the exclusively montane parrot genus Hapalopsittaca and its lowland sister genus Pyrilia, both nested withTavares et al.'s "amazons and allies" clade. As Hapalopsittaca is the only genus withthe "amazons and allies" clade that is exclusively distributed the Andes, the optimization leads to the inference that the ancestral distribution of the branch leading to Pyrilia+Hapalopsittaca was lowland. Museum specimens were examined to determine basal diagnosably distinct taxonomic units. Based on this analysis, mitochondrial sequences (cyt b and ND2 genes) from 17 individuals, mostly from toe pads, and representing all basal taxa withHapalopsittaca, were obtained. A divergence-dating analysis using both nuclear (RAG-1) and mitochondrial (cyt b) genes was conducted to explore whether the uplift of the Andes coincides temporarily with the origof this montane group, and thus might be causally linked to its origin. Molecular dating estimates the split between Hapalopsittaca and Pyrilia to have occurred between 6.6 and 8.0Myr; thus, the timing of this highland/lowland disjunction is consistent with that of the final uplift of the Central Andes, supporting a hypothesis of vicariance due to Andean uplift. These results suggest that the taxonomic assembly of montane biotas may be, at least part, explained by events of Earth history rather than by long-distance dispersal and colonization. Diversification withHapalopsittaca and the origof current species are more recent time and probably are related to Pleistocene climatic oscillations, as has been shown other montane groups. © 2012 The Authors Zoologica Scripta © 2012 The Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters.
metadata.dc.identifier.doi: 10.1111/j.1463-6409.2012.00567.x
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