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Title: Seasonal anomalous rainfall in the central and eastern Amazon and associated anomalous oceanic and atmospheric patterns
Authors: Andreoli, Rita Valéria
Souza, Rodrigo Augusto Ferreira de
Kayano, Mary Toshie
Cândido, Luiz Antônio
Keywords: Amazon Region
Atlantic Basin
Atmospheric Pattern
Climate Condition
Climate Variability
Combined Effect
Differential Factors
Dry Seasons
Eastern Amazons
Eastern Tropical Pacific
New Results
Pacific Sector
Precipitation Extremes
Rainfall Anomaly
Rainfall Data
Rainy Seasons
Sea Level Pressure
Sea Surface Temperature (sst)
Seasonal Differences
Seasonal Phase Locking
Tropical Atlantic
Tropical Ocean
Atmospheric Pressure
Earth Atmosphere
Nickel Compounds
Sea Level
Climate Conditions
Climate Variation
El Nino-southern Oscillation
Precipitation (climatology)
Sea Level Pressure
Sea Surface Temperature
Seasonal Variation
Temperature Anomaly
Temperature Gradient
Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean (tropical)
Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean (tropical)
Para [brazil]
Santarem [para]
Issue Date: 2012
metadata.dc.publisher.journal: International Journal of Climatology
metadata.dc.relation.ispartof: Volume 32, Número 8, Pags. 1193-1205
Abstract: Previous papers have shown that the rainfall anomalies over the Amazon region result from the independent or combined effects of the eastern tropical Pacific and Atlantic Basins. Here, the monthly rainfall data of Itaituba, Manaus, Parintins, and Santarém for the 1931-1996 period has been used to classify its dry and rainy seasons into dry, very dry, wet, and very wet categories. The sea surface temperature (SST) and sea level pressure (SLP) patterns associated with these climate conditions in the central and eastern Amazon are discussed in terms of the relative influence of the tropical Atlantic and Pacific sectors, as well as their seasonal differences. These seasonal differences are, in part, determined by the seasonal phase locking of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Atlantic equatorial modes. The rainy season cases are mostly driven by the ENSO and the inter-hemispheric SST gradient mode in the tropical Atlantic, and the dry season cases, by the Atlantic equatorial mode (AEM). A new result here is the role of the inter-Pacific-Atlantic anomalous SST gradient mode on the rainfall anomalies. This mode acts concordantly with the Atlantic modes on the rainfall over the central and eastern Amazon, and is responsible for precipitation extreme cases during the dry season and for the very wet rainy season case. In other words, the intense inter-Pacific-Atlantic mode for these cases is the differential factor in relation to the moderate cases. The results here, especially in relation to the role of the inter-Pacific-Atlantic gradient in the central and eastern Amazon precipitation, have not been discussed before and should be taken into consideration in the diagnostic activities. © 2011 Royal Meteorological Society.
metadata.dc.identifier.doi: 10.1002/joc.2345
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