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dc.contributor.authorNogueira, Euler Melo-
dc.contributor.authorFearnside, Philip Martin-
dc.contributor.authorNelson, Bruce Walker-
dc.description.abstractWood density is an important variable in estimates of biomass and carbon flux in tropical regions. However, the Amazon region lacks large-scale wood-density datasets that employ a sampling methodology adequate for use in estimates of biomass and carbon emissions. Normalization of the available datasets is needed to avoid bias in estimates that combine previous studies of wood density that used wood sampling at diverse positions in the bole or with various methods of density determination. This paper examines the question of whether regressions for radial variation and for variation in wood density along the bole, both developed in dense forest in central Amazonia (CA), are suitable for the open forests in southern Amazonia (SA) that are currently the target of most of Amazonia's deforestation activity. The wood density of the heartwood and density of full disks or slices (bark, sapwood and heartwood) in each tree were measured to assess the radial variation. For variation along the length of the bole, wood densities at breast height and at the top of the bole were used. Moisture content of the bole was measured in SA and compared with values reported by studies from CA in similar dense forest. Comparing regressions that predict full-disk density from heartwood density, the pattern of radial variation differs slightly and significantly between the two forest types (ANCOVA p = 0.006); the slopes have similar values but the intercepts differ. Variation along the bole in the two forest types does not differ significantly (p = 0.144), so the CA model for predicting mean bole density from the density of a slice at breast height gives an unbiased estimate of the mean bole density when applied to SA trees. In SA the mean moisture content of the bole was 0.416 (±0.068 S.D.; n = 223 trees). Moisture content of the bole had a strong inverse relationship with basic wood density (r = -0.77), which explains the lower moisture content in the trees in CA relative to SA. A much weaker inverse relationship was found between moisture content and green wood density (r = -0.292). The relationship between wood basic density and green ('fresh') density presented in this study provides an alternative means of obtaining basic wood density directly in the field when oven drying of samples is not possible. © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.en
dc.relation.ispartofVolume 256, Número 5, Pags. 990-996pt_BR
dc.subjectAir Pollutionen
dc.subjectBiological Materialsen
dc.subjectDisks (structural Components)en
dc.subjectFood Processingen
dc.subjectMoisture Determinationen
dc.subjectRenewable Energy Resourcesen
dc.subjectSimulated Annealingen
dc.subjectWood Productsen
dc.subjectAmazon Forestsen
dc.subjectAmazon Regionen
dc.subjectWood Basic Densityen
dc.subjectBreast Heighten
dc.subjectCa Modelen
dc.subjectCarbon Emissionsen
dc.subjectCarbon Fluxesen
dc.subjectData Setsen
dc.subjectDensity Determinationen
dc.subjectForest Typesen
dc.subjectGlobal Warmingen
dc.subjectGreen Wood Densityen
dc.subjectInverse Relationshipen
dc.subjectLinear Regressionen
dc.subjectMoisture Contenten
dc.subjectOpen Forestsen
dc.subjectOven Dryingen
dc.subjectRadial Variationsen
dc.subjectTropical Regionsen
dc.subjectWood Basic Densityen
dc.subjectWood Densityen
dc.subjectCarbon Fluxen
dc.subjectComparative Studyen
dc.subjectData Seten
dc.subjectEstimation Methoden
dc.subjectFlux Measurementen
dc.subjectGlobal Warmingen
dc.subjectMoisture Contenten
dc.subjectPopulation Densityen
dc.subjectTropical Regionen
dc.subjectAir Pollutionen
dc.subjectHeart Wooden
dc.subjectMoisture Contenten
dc.subjectRegression Analysisen
dc.subjectSap Wooden
dc.subjectWood Densityen
dc.subjectSouth Americaen
dc.titleNormalization of wood density in biomass estimates of Amazon forestsen
dc.publisher.journalForest Ecology and Managementpt_BR
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