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Title: Transmigration in Indonesia: Lessons from its environmental and social impacts
Authors: Fearnside, Philip Martin
Keywords: Environmental Impact Assessment
Human Rights
Social Environment
Economic And Social Effects
Public Policy
Public Relations
Environmental Impact
Internal Migration
Migration Impact
Population Policy
Population Pressure
Social Impact
Transmigration Programme
World Bank Role
Indonesia, Java
Issue Date: 1997
metadata.dc.publisher.journal: Environmental Management
metadata.dc.relation.ispartof: Volume 21, Número 4, Pags. 553-570
Abstract: Indonesia's transmigration program to transport people from Java and other densely populated islands to largely forested outer islands has high environmental, social, and financial costs, while doing little towards relieving population pressure on Java. Transmigration has been an important cause of forest loss in Indonesia World Bank financing promoted the program directly over the 1976-1989 period and continues to underwrite other settlement models that have supplanted earlier programs. The bank projects included creating and strengthening a Ministry of Transmigration, which also carried out settlements of types other than those financed as discrete components of bank loans. Some of these indirectly supported activities have had particularly serious human rights consequences. The case of transmigration provides valuable lessons for tropical countries and international development agencies such as the World Bank, and many of these lessons have yet to be learned.
metadata.dc.identifier.doi: 10.1007/s002679900049
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