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Título: Diversidade molecular dos Ancistrini (Loricariidae: Siluriformes) reofílicos da ecorregião Xingu-Tapajós
Autor: Ribeiro, Emanuell Duarte
Orientador: Hrbek, Tomas
Coorientador: Sousa, Leandro Melo de
Palavras-chave: Ancistrini
DNA Barcoding
Data do documento: 15-Mar-2013
Editor: Instituto Nacional de Pesquisa da Amazônia - INPA
Programa: Genética, Conservação e Biologia Evolutiva - GCBEv
Resumo: With more than 5,700 species described, Neotropical ichthyofauna is considered the most diverse vertebrate fauna of the world. Neotropical fishes represent 20% of all fish species in the world. Therefore any attempt to understand evolution of vertebrates must rely on the understanding of the diversification of fishes in the Amazon basin and adjacent regions. Among the drainages that comprise the Amazon basin, the Xingu and Tapajós are particularly notable for the large number of rapids and waterfalls, which occur in the transition area between the Brazilian Shield and the Amazonian plain. The environment of the rapids is characterized by a set of extreme environmental features, requiring morphophysiological and behavioral specializations of the associated ichthyofauna. With approximately 250 valid species, the tribe Ancistrini has strong association with rapidly moving waters, and are an important component of the rheophilic fish fauna of the Xingu- Tapajós aquatic ecoregion. The Xingu and Tapajós Rivers are considered historically under-sampled, and the high number of species that have been described in recent years is indicative of the need to expand the taxonomic studies in this ecoregion. The recent infrastructure investments by the federal government into the construction oof hydroelectric developments raises to the state of urgency the need to increase the number of studies aimed to describe and elucidate the processes that generated these communities. For these reasons, the present study aimed to characterize the molecular diversity and phylogenetic structure of ancistrine communities of the Xingu-Tapajós aquatic ecoregion with the goal of clarifying the historical and ecological processes responsible for the current pattern of species co-occurrence. Analyses of DNA barcodes revealed the existence of 46 species of Ancistrini in the ecoregion, that are distributed in 16 genera, one of them probably being a new genus. The high concordance between morphologically and molecularly identified species indicates the reliability of the methodology of DNA barcoding for the identification/delimitation of species, making it a useful tool for the necessary acceleration of the description of new species of Neotropical ichthyofauna. The importance of biotic interactions suggested by analysis of phylogenetic community structure meets the theories proposed for the formation of communities of fish in lotic environments. However some evidence suggests that this difference may be the result of bias related to the taxonomic and geographical scales of the current study.
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