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Title: Multiple species and deep genomic divergences despite little phenotypic differentiation in an ancient Neotropical songbird, Tunchiornis ochraceiceps (Sclater, 1860) (Aves: Vireonidae)
Authors: Buainain, Nelson
Maximiano, Marina F.A.
Ferreira, Mateus
Aleixo, Alexandre
Faircloth, Brant C.
Brumfield, Robb Thomas
Cracraft, Joel L.
Ribas, Camila Cherem
Issue Date: 2021
metadata.dc.publisher.journal: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
metadata.dc.relation.ispartof: Volume 162
Abstract: Several bird taxa have been recently described or elevated to full species and almost twice as many bird species than are currently recognized may exist. Defining species is one of the most basic and important issues in biological science because unknown or poorly defined species hamper subsequent studies. Here, we evaluate the species limits and evolutionary history of Tunchiornis ochraceiceps—a widespread forest songbird that occurs in the lowlands of Central America, Chocó and Amazonia—using an integrative approach that includes plumage coloration, morphometrics, vocalization and genomic data. The species has a relatively old crown age (~9 Ma) and comprises several lineages with little, if any, evidence of gene flow among them. We propose a taxonomic arrangement composed of four species, three with a plumage coloration diagnosis and one deeply divergent cryptic species. Most of the remaining lineages have variable but unfixed phenotypic characters despite their relatively old origin. This decoupling of genomic and phenotypic differentiation reveals a remarkable case of phenotypic conservatism, possibly due to strict habitat association. Lineages are geographically delimited by the main Amazonian rivers and the Andes, a pattern observed in studies of other understory upland forest Neotropical birds, although phylogenetic relationships and divergence times among populations are idiosyncratic. © 2021 Elsevier Inc.
metadata.dc.identifier.doi: 10.1016/j.ympev.2021.107206
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