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Title: The Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO): Overview of pilot measurements on ecosystem ecology, meteorology, trace gases, and aerosols
Authors: Andreae, Meinrat O.
Acevedo, Otávio C.
Araüjo, Alessandro Carioca de
Artaxo, Paulo
Barbosa, Cybelli G.G.
Barbosa, H. M. J.
Brito, Joel F.
Carbone, Samara
Chi, Xuguang
Cintra, Bruno Bar?ante Ladvocat
Silva, Naara Ferreira da
Dias, Nelson Luís da Costa
Dias Júnior, Cléo Quaresma
Ditas, Florian
Ditz, Reiner
Godoi, Ana Flávia Locateli
Godoi, Ricardo Henrique Moreton
Heimann, Martin
Hoffmann, Thorsten
Kesselmeier, Jürgen
Könemann, Tobias
Krüger, Mira L.
Lavric, J. V.
Manzi, Antônio Ocimar
Lopes, Aline Pontes
Martins, Demétrius L.
Mikhailov, Eugene F.
Morán-Zuloaga, Daniel
Nelson, Bruce Walker
Nölscher, Anke C.
Santos Nogueira, D.
Piedade, Maria Teresa Fernandez
Pöhlker, Christopher
Pöschl, Ulrich
Quesada, Carlos Alberto
Rizzo, L. V.
Ro, Chul Un
Ruckteschler, Nina
Sá, Leonardo Deane Abreu
Oliveira Sá, Marta de
Sales, C. B.
dos Santos, Rosa Maria Nascimento
Saturno, Jorge
Schöngart, Jochen
Sörgel, Matthias
Souza, Cledenilson Mendonça de
Souza, Rodrigo Augusto Ferreira de
Su, Hang
Targhetta, Natália
Tóta, Júlio
Trebs, Ivonne
Trumbore, Susan Elizabeth
van Eijck, Anna
Walter, David
Wang, Zhibin
Weber, Bettina
Williams, Jonathan C.
Winderlich, J.
Wittmann, Florian Karl
Wolff, Stefan
Yáñez-Serrano, Ana Maria
Keywords: Aerosol
Atmospheric Chemistry
Biogeochemical Cycle
Carbon Cycle
Chemical Composition
Climate Change
Forest Ecosystem
Human Activity
Trace Gas
Issue Date: 2015
metadata.dc.publisher.journal: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics
metadata.dc.relation.ispartof: Volume 15, Número 18, Pags. 10723-10776
Abstract: The Amazon Basin plays key roles in the carbon and water cycles, climate change, atmospheric chemistry, and biodiversity. It has already been changed significantly by human activities, and more pervasive change is expected to occur in the coming decades. It is therefore essential to establish long-term measurement sites that provide a baseline record of present-day climatic, biogeochemical, and atmospheric conditions and that will be operated over coming decades to monitor change in the Amazon region, as human perturbations increase in the future. <br><br> The Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO) has been set up in a pristine rain forest region in the central Amazon Basin, about 150 km northeast of the city of Manaus. Two 80 m towers have been operated at the site since 2012, and a 325 m tower is nearing completion in mid-2015. An ecological survey including a biodiversity assessment has been conducted in the forest region surrounding the site. Measurements of micrometeorological and atmospheric chemical variables were initiated in 2012, and their range has continued to broaden over the last few years. The meteorological and micrometeorological measurements include temperature and wind profiles, precipitation, water and energy fluxes, turbulence components, soil temperature profiles and soil heat fluxes, radiation fluxes, and visibility. A tree has been instrumented to measure stem profiles of temperature, light intensity, and water content in cryptogamic covers. The trace gas measurements comprise continuous monitoring of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, and ozone at five to eight different heights, complemented by a variety of additional species measured during intensive campaigns (e.g., VOC, NO, NO<inf>2</inf>, and OH reactivity). Aerosol optical, microphysical, and chemical measurements are being made above the canopy as well as in the canopy space. They include aerosol light scattering and absorption, fluorescence, number and volume size distributions, chemical composition, cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations, and hygroscopicity. In this paper, we discuss the scientific context of the ATTO observatory and present an overview of results from ecological, meteorological, and chemical pilot studies at the ATTO site. © Author(s) 2015.
metadata.dc.identifier.doi: 10.5194/acp-15-10723-2015
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