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Title: Global patterns of interaction specialization in bird–flower networks
Authors: Zanata, Thais Bastos
Dalsgaard, Bo
Passos, Fernando C.
Roper, James J.
Maruyama, Pietro Kiyoshi
Fischer, Erich
Schleuning, Matthias
Martín González, Ana M.
Vizentin-Bugoni, Jeferson
Franklin, Donald C.
Abrahamczyk, Stefan
Alarcón, Ruben
Araujo, Andréa Cardoso de
Araújo, Francielle Paulina
Azevedo Júnior, Severino Mde
Baquero, Andrea C.
Böhning-Gaese, Katrin
Carstensen, Daniel Wisbech
Chupil, Henrique
Coelho, Aline Góes
Faria, R. R.
Ho?ák, David
Ingversen, Tanja Toftemark
Jane?ek, Št?pán
Kohler, Glauco
Lara, Carlos
Las-Casas, Flor Maria Guedes
Lopes, Ariadna Valentina
Machado, Adriana Oliveira
Machado, Caio Graco
Machado, I. C.
Maglianesi, María Alejandra
Malucelli, Tiago Simões
Mohd-Azlan, Jayasilan
Moura, Alan Cerqueira
Oliveira, Genilda M.
Oliveira, Paulo E.
Ornelas, J. F.
Riegert, Jan
Rodrigues, Licléia da Cruz
Rosero-Lasprilla, Liliana
Rui, Ana Maria
Sazima, Marlies And I.
Schmid, Baptiste
Sedlá?ek, Ond?ej
Timmermann, Allan
Vollstädt, Maximilian G.R.
Wang, Zhiheng
Watts, Stella
Rahbek, Carsten
Varassin, Isabela Galarda
Keywords: Bird
Global Perspective
Niche Overlap
Plant-herbivore Interaction
North America
South America
Issue Date: 2017
metadata.dc.publisher.journal: Journal of Biogeography
metadata.dc.relation.ispartof: Volume 44, Número 8, Pags. 1891-1910
Abstract: Aim: Among the world's three major nectar-feeding bird taxa, hummingbirds are the most phenotypically specialized for nectarivory, followed by sunbirds, while the honeyeaters are the least phenotypically specialized taxa. We tested whether this phenotypic specialization gradient is also found in the interaction patterns with their floral resources. Location: Americas, Africa, Asia and Oceania/Australia. Methods: We compiled interaction networks between birds and floral resources for 79 hummingbird, nine sunbird and 33 honeyeater communities. Interaction specialization was quantified through connectance (C), complementary specialization (H2′), binary (QB) and weighted modularity (Q), with both observed and null-model corrected values. We compared interaction specialization among the three types of bird–flower communities, both independently and while controlling for potential confounding variables, such as plant species richness, asymmetry, latitude, insularity, topography, sampling methods and intensity. Results: Hummingbird–flower networks were more specialized than honeyeater–flower networks. Specifically, hummingbird–flower networks had a lower proportion of realized interactions (lower C), decreased niche overlap (greater H2′) and greater modularity (greater QB). However, we found no significant differences between hummingbird– and sunbird–flower networks, nor between sunbird– and honeyeater–flower networks. Main conclusions: As expected, hummingbirds and their floral resources have greater interaction specialization than honeyeaters, possibly because of greater phenotypic specialization and greater floral resource richness in the New World. Interaction specialization in sunbird–flower communities was similar to both hummingbird–flower and honeyeater–flower communities. This may either be due to the relatively small number of sunbird–flower networks available, or because sunbird–flower communities share features of both hummingbird–flower communities (specialized floral shapes) and honeyeater–flower communities (fewer floral resources). These results suggest a link between interaction specialization and both phenotypic specialization and floral resource richness within bird–flower communities at a global scale. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd
metadata.dc.identifier.doi: 10.1111/jbi.13045
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